Health Care Disparities in Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy for Benign Indications: A Systematic Review

Cecilia K. Wieslander, Cara L. Grimes, Ethan M. Balk, Deslyn T.G. Hobson, Nancy E. Ringel, Tatiana V.D. Sanses, Ruchira Singh, Monica L. Richardson, Lioudmila Lipetskaia, Ankita Gupta, Amanda B. White, Francisco Orejuela, Kate Meriwether, Danielle D. Antosh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To explore how markers of health care disparity are associated with access to care and outcomes among patients seeking and undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications.

DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and were searched through January 23, 2022.

METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: The population of interest included patients in the United States who sought or underwent hysterectomy by any approach for benign indications. Health care disparity markers included race, ethnicity, geographic location, insurance status, and others. Outcomes included access to surgery, patient level outcomes, and surgical outcomes. Eligible studies reported multivariable regression analyses that described the independent association between at least one health care disparity risk marker and an outcome. We evaluated direction and strengths of association within studies and consistency across studies.

TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Of 6,499 abstracts screened, 39 studies with a total of 46 multivariable analyses were included. Having a Black racial identity was consistently associated with decreased access to minimally invasive, laparoscopic, robotic, and vaginal hysterectomy. Being of Hispanic ethnicity and having Asian or Pacific Islander racial identities were associated with decreased access to laparoscopic and vaginal hysterectomy. Black patients were the only racial or ethnic group with an increased association with hysterectomy complications. Medicare insurance was associated with decreased access to laparoscopic hysterectomy, and both Medicaid and Medicare insurance were associated with increased likelihood of hysterectomy complications. Living in the South or Midwest or having less than a college degree education was associated with likelihood of prior hysterectomy.

CONCLUSION: Studies suggest that various health care disparity markers are associated with poorer access to less invasive hysterectomy procedures and with poorer outcomes for patients who are undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications. Further research is needed to understand and identify the causes of these disparities, and immediate changes to our health care system are needed to improve access and opportunities for patients facing health care disparities.


Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1044-1054
Number of pages11
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2023


  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • United States
  • Healthcare Disparities
  • Medicare
  • Hysterectomy/methods
  • Ethnicity
  • Hysterectomy, Vaginal
  • Retrospective Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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