Health and human development in Kenya: A review of literature from high income, middle income, and low income countries

Caroline Sabina Wekullo, Elise Catherine Davis, Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Bita A. Kash

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: This paper aims to critically analyze the empirical literature on health and human development in high-, middle- and low-income countries to develop a sustainable model for investing in human health. The model is critical in building a comprehensive health-care system that fosters the stakeholders’ financial stability, economic growth and high-quality education for the local community. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive literature review was carried out on health, human development and sustainable health investment. After thoroughly examining theoretical frameworks underlying the strategies of successful human health systems, a summary of empirical articles is created. Summaries provided in this paper represent relevant health-care strategies for Kenya. Findings: Based on the empirical review of literature, a Nexus Health Care model focusing on human development, social and cultural development, economic development and environmental development in high-, middle- and low-income countries is proposed. The goal of this model is to enhance sustainable development where wealth creation is accompanied with environmental uplifting and protection of social and material well-being. Research limitations/implications: This paper is limited to a comprehensive literature review presenting empirical evidence of human development and sustainability. Originality/value: Kenya like other developing nations aspires to contribute significantly in improving health through development of health products but the approaches used have been limiting. In most cases, the use of Western theories, lack of empowering the community and dependence on donor support have hindered the country from achieving comprehensive health and human development. This papers seeks to develop a model for health-care investment and provide strategies, operations and structure of successful health systems and human development for a developing country, such as Kenya.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-34
Number of pages30
JournalEuropean Journal of Training and Development
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2018


  • Human development
  • Human health development
  • Human health improvement
  • Kenya
  • Social development
  • Sustainable development
  • Sustainable health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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