Graphene metallization of high-stress silicon nitride resonators for electrical integration

Sunwoo Lee, Vivekananda P. Adiga, Robert A. Barton, Arend M. Van Der Zande, Gwan Hyoung Lee, B. Rob Ilic, Alexander Gondarenko, Jeevak M. Parpia, Harold G. Craighead, James Hone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


High stress stoichiometric silicon nitride resonators, whose quality factors exceed one million, have shown promise for applications in sensing, signal processing, and optomechanics. Yet, electrical integration of the insulating silicon nitride resonators has been challenging, as depositing even a thin layer of metal degrades the quality factor significantly. In this work, we show that graphene used as a conductive coating for Si3N4 membranes reduces the quality factor by less than 30% on average, which is minimal when compared to the effect of conventional metallization layers such as chromium or aluminum. The electrical integration of Si3N 4-Graphene (SiNG) heterostructure resonators is demonstrated with electrical readout and electrostatic tuning of the frequency by up to 0.3% per volt. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of hybrid graphene/nitride mechanical resonators in which the electrical properties of graphene are combined with the superior mechanical performance of silicon nitride.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4275-4279
Number of pages5
JournalNano Letters
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 11 2013


  • graphene
  • NEMS
  • optomechanics
  • quality factor
  • Silicon nitride resonators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering


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