Graphene-Based Smart Platforms for Combined Cancer Therapy

Zhanjun Gu, Shuang Zhu, Liang Yan, Feng Zhao, Yuliang Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

239 Scopus citations


The extensive research of graphene and its derivatives in biomedical applications during the past few years has witnessed its significance in the field of nanomedicine. Starting from simple drug delivery systems, the application of graphene and its derivatives has been extended to a versatile platform of multiple therapeutic modalities, including photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, magnetic hyperthermia therapy, and sonodynamic therapy. In addition to monotherapy, graphene-based materials are widely applied in combined therapies for enhanced anticancer activity and reduced side effects. In particular, graphene-based materials are often designed and fabricated as “smart” platforms for stimuli-responsive nanocarriers, whose therapeutic effects can be activated by the tumor microenvironment, such as acidic pH and elevated glutathione (termed as “endogenous stimuli”), or light, magnetic, or ultrasonic stimuli (termed as “exogenous stimuli”). Herein, the recent advances of smart graphene platforms for combined therapy applications are presented, starting with the principle for the design of graphene-based smart platforms in combined therapy applications. Next, recent advances of combined therapies contributed by graphene-based materials, including chemotherapy-based, photothermal-therapy-based, and ultrasound-therapy-based synergistic therapy, are outlined. In addition, current challenges and future prospects regarding this promising field are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1800662
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number9
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019


  • combined cancer therapy
  • graphene-based materials
  • smart platforms
  • stimuli

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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