Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3 fusion protein (pIXY 321) enhances high-dose Ara-C-induced programmed cell death or apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells

Kapil Bhalla, Caroline Tang, Ana Maria Ibrado, Steven Grant, Elena Tourkina, Charles Holladay, Monty Hughes, Mary Ella Mahoney, Yue Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Scopus citations

Abstract

High dose Ara-C (HIDAC) induces programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis in vitro in human myeloid leukemia cells, which correlates with the inhibition of their clonogenic survival. Hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) have been demonstrated to enhance the metabolism and cytotoxic effects of HIDAC against leukemic progenitor cells. We examined the effect of plXY 321 (a GM-CSF/IL-3 fusion protein) on HIDAC-induced PCD and related gene expressions as well as HIDAC-mediated colony growth inhibition of human myeloid leukemia cells. Unlike the previously described effects of HGFs on normal bone marrow progenitor cells, exposure to plXY 321 alone for up to 24 hours did not suppress PCD in HL-60 or KG-1 cells. However, exposure to plXY 321 for 20 hours followed by a combined treatment with Ara-C plus plXY 321 for 4 or 24 hours versus treatment with Ara-C alone significantly enhanced the oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of PCD. This was temporally associated with a marked induction of c-jun expression and a significant decrease in BCL-2. In addition, the treatment with plXY 321 plus HIDAC versus HIDAC alone produced a significantly greater inhibition of HL-60 colony growth. These findings highlight an additional mechanism of HIDAC-induced leukemic cell death that is augmented by cotreatment with plXY 321 and may contribute toward an improved antileukemic activity of HIDAC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2883-2890
Number of pages8
JournalBlood
Volume80
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Cell Biology

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