Getting blood out of a stone: Identification and management of patients with poor hematopoietic cell mobilization

Jian Chen, Hillard M. Lazarus, Parastoo B. Dahi, Scott Avecilla, Sergio A. Giralt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has become a primary treatment for many cancers. Nowadays, the primary source of hematopoietic cells is by leukapheresis collection of these cells from peripheral blood, after a forced egress of hematopoietic cells from marrow into blood circulation, a process known as “mobilization”. In this process, mobilizing agents disrupt binding interactions between hematopoietic cells and marrow microenvironment to facilitate collection. As the first essential step of HCT, poor mobilization, i.e. failure to obtain a desired or required number of hematopoietic cell, is one of the major factors affecting engraftment or even precluding transplantation. This review summarizes the available mobilization regimens using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and plerixafor, as well as the current understanding of the factors that are associated with poor mobilization. Strategies to mobilize patients or healthy donors who failed previous mobilization are discussed. Multiple novel agents are under investigation and some of them have shown the potential to enhance the mobilization response to G-CSF and/or plerixafor. Further investigation of the risk factors including genetic factors will offer an opportunity to better understand the molecular mechanism of mobilization and help develop new therapeutic strategies for successful mobilizations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100771
JournalBlood Reviews
StatePublished - May 2021


  • Hematopoietic stem cell
  • Stem cell mobilization
  • Transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology


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