Gene-diet interactions and plasma lipoproteins: Role of apolipoprotein E and habitual saturated fat intake

Gladstone E. Airewele, Alice J. Sigurdson, Karen J. Wiley, Blake E. Frieden, Lauren W. Caldarera, Vincent M. Riccardi, Richard Alan Lewis, Murali Chintagumpala, Joann L. Ater, Sharon E. Plon, Melissa L. Bondy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations

Abstract

To test whether plasma lipoprotein levels and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size are modulated by an interaction between habitual saturated fat intake and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, we studied 420 randomly selected free-living Costa Ricans. The APOE allele frequencies were 0.03 for APOE2, 0.91 for APOE3, and 0.06 for APOE4. The median saturated fat intake, 11% of energy, was used to divide the population into two groups, LOW-SAT (mean intake 8.6% energy) represents those below median intake, and HIGH-SAT (mean intake 13.5%) represents those above median intake. Significant interactions between APOE genotype and diet were found for VLDL (P = 0.03) and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.02). Higher saturated fat intake was associated with higher VLDL cholesterol (+29%) and lower HDL cholesterol (-22%) in APOE2 carriers, while the opposite association was observed in APOF4 carriers (-31% for VLDL cholesterol and +10% for HDL cholesterol). Higher saturated fat intake was associated with smaller LDL particles (-2%, P < 0.05) in APOE2 carriers, and larger LDL particles (+2%, P < 0.05) in APOE4 carriers, but the gene-diet interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). Higher saturated fat intake was associated with higher LDL cholesterol in all genotypes (mean ± SEM, LOW-SAT 2.61 ± 0.05 vs. HIGH-SAT 2.84 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.009). These data suggest that the APOE2 allele could modulate the effect of habitual saturated fat on VLDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in a population with an average habitual total fat intake of less than 30%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-128
Number of pages12
JournalGenetic Epidemiology
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Keywords

  • Cholesterol
  • Heart disease
  • Hispanic
  • Latin American
  • LDL subclass
  • Polymorphism
  • Risk factor
  • Triglyceride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Epidemiology

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