Medulloblastomas represent 20% of malignant brain tumors of childhood. Although, they show multiple, non-random genomic alterations, no common, early genetic event involving all histologic types of medulloblastomas have been described. Nineteen medulloblastomas were analyzed using chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (cCGH). Nine tumors with the most frequent number of genetic changes were further analyzed using bacterial artificial chromosome array CGH (aCGH). With aCGH, the frequency of gains and losses were higher than with cCGH. Chromosome 2p gains spanning 2p11-2p25 including N-myc locus, 2p24.1 were detected in 5/9 (55%) tumors while 14q12 gains were detected in 6/9 (67%) tumors. The 14q12 locus overlapped with the FOXGI gene locus. Quantitative real time PCR showed a 2-7-fold copy gain for FOXG1 in all the nine tumors. Protein expression was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in all histologic types. The expression of FOXG1 and p21cip1 showed an inverse relationship. FOXG1 copy gain (>2 to 21 folds) was seen in 93% (55/59) of a validating set of tumors and showed a positive correlation with protein expression (Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient = 0.276; P = 0.038) representing the first report of FOXG1 dysregulation in medulloblastoma. Modulation of FOXG1 expression in DAOY cell line using siRNA showed a modest decrease in proliferation with a 2-fold upregulation of p21cip1. Current reports indicate that FOXG1 represses TGF-β induced expression of p21cip1 and cytostasis, and forms a transcriptional repressor complex with Notch signaling induced hes1. Our findings are consistent with a role for FOXG1 in the inhibition of TGF-β induced cytostasis in medulloblastoma.
- Array comparative genomic hybridization
- Pediatric brain tumors
- Primitive neuroectodermal tumor
- TGF-β signaling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cancer Research