Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

J. Gateño, T. L. Jones, S. G.F. Shen, K. C. Chen, A. Jajoo, T. Kuang, J. D. English, M. Nicol, J. F. Teichgraeber, J. J. Xia

The purpose of this study was to produce reliable estimations of fluctuating facial asymmetry in a normal population. Fifty-four computed tomography (CT) facial models of average-looking and symmetrical Chinese subjects with a class I occlusion were used in this study. Eleven midline landmarks and 12 pairs of bilateral landmarks were digitized. The repeatability of the landmark digitization was first evaluated. A Procrustes analysis was then used to measure the fluctuating asymmetry of each CT model, after all of the models had been scaled to the average face size of the study sample. A principal component analysis was finally used to establish the direction of the fluctuating asymmetries. The results showed that there was excellent absolute agreement among the three repeated measurements. The mean fluctuating asymmetry of the average-size face varied at each anthropometric landmark site, ranging from 1.0. mm to 2.8. mm. At the 95% upper limit, the asymmetries ranged from 2.2. mm to 5.7. mm. Most of the asymmetry of the midline structures was mediolateral, while the asymmetry of the bilateral landmarks was more equally distributed. These values are for the average face. People with larger faces will have higher values, while subjects with smaller faces will have lower values.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Volume47
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2018

PMID: 29103833

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Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton. / Gateño, J.; Jones, T. L.; Shen, S. G.F.; Chen, K. C.; Jajoo, A.; Kuang, T.; English, J. D.; Nicol, M.; Teichgraeber, J. F.; Xia, J. J.

In: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 47, No. 4, 04.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Gateño, J, Jones, TL, Shen, SGF, Chen, KC, Jajoo, A, Kuang, T, English, JD, Nicol, M, Teichgraeber, JF & Xia, JJ 2018, 'Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton' International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 47, no. 4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2017.10.011

APA

Gateño, J., Jones, T. L., Shen, S. G. F., Chen, K. C., Jajoo, A., Kuang, T., ... Xia, J. J. (2018). Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 47(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2017.10.011

Vancouver

Gateño J, Jones TL, Shen SGF, Chen KC, Jajoo A, Kuang T et al. Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2018 Apr;47(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2017.10.011

Author

Gateño, J. ; Jones, T. L. ; Shen, S. G.F. ; Chen, K. C. ; Jajoo, A. ; Kuang, T. ; English, J. D. ; Nicol, M. ; Teichgraeber, J. F. ; Xia, J. J. / Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton. In: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2018 ; Vol. 47, No. 4.

BibTeX

@article{0aab202b3f7540dba54fd5bb97004bcf,
title = "Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to produce reliable estimations of fluctuating facial asymmetry in a normal population. Fifty-four computed tomography (CT) facial models of average-looking and symmetrical Chinese subjects with a class I occlusion were used in this study. Eleven midline landmarks and 12 pairs of bilateral landmarks were digitized. The repeatability of the landmark digitization was first evaluated. A Procrustes analysis was then used to measure the fluctuating asymmetry of each CT model, after all of the models had been scaled to the average face size of the study sample. A principal component analysis was finally used to establish the direction of the fluctuating asymmetries. The results showed that there was excellent absolute agreement among the three repeated measurements. The mean fluctuating asymmetry of the average-size face varied at each anthropometric landmark site, ranging from 1.0. mm to 2.8. mm. At the 95{\%} upper limit, the asymmetries ranged from 2.2. mm to 5.7. mm. Most of the asymmetry of the midline structures was mediolateral, while the asymmetry of the bilateral landmarks was more equally distributed. These values are for the average face. People with larger faces will have higher values, while subjects with smaller faces will have lower values.",
keywords = "Computed tomography, Fluctuating asymmetry, Normal facial skeleton, Principal component analysis, Procrustes analysis",
author = "J. Gate{\~n}o and Jones, {T. L.} and Shen, {S. G.F.} and Chen, {K. C.} and A. Jajoo and T. Kuang and English, {J. D.} and M. Nicol and Teichgraeber, {J. F.} and Xia, {J. J.}",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijom.2017.10.011",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "47",
journal = "International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery",
issn = "0901-5027",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",
number = "4",

}

RIS

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T1 - Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton

AU - Gateño, J.

AU - Jones, T. L.

AU - Shen, S. G.F.

AU - Chen, K. C.

AU - Jajoo, A.

AU - Kuang, T.

AU - English, J. D.

AU - Nicol, M.

AU - Teichgraeber, J. F.

AU - Xia, J. J.

PY - 2018/4

Y1 - 2018/4

N2 - The purpose of this study was to produce reliable estimations of fluctuating facial asymmetry in a normal population. Fifty-four computed tomography (CT) facial models of average-looking and symmetrical Chinese subjects with a class I occlusion were used in this study. Eleven midline landmarks and 12 pairs of bilateral landmarks were digitized. The repeatability of the landmark digitization was first evaluated. A Procrustes analysis was then used to measure the fluctuating asymmetry of each CT model, after all of the models had been scaled to the average face size of the study sample. A principal component analysis was finally used to establish the direction of the fluctuating asymmetries. The results showed that there was excellent absolute agreement among the three repeated measurements. The mean fluctuating asymmetry of the average-size face varied at each anthropometric landmark site, ranging from 1.0. mm to 2.8. mm. At the 95% upper limit, the asymmetries ranged from 2.2. mm to 5.7. mm. Most of the asymmetry of the midline structures was mediolateral, while the asymmetry of the bilateral landmarks was more equally distributed. These values are for the average face. People with larger faces will have higher values, while subjects with smaller faces will have lower values.

AB - The purpose of this study was to produce reliable estimations of fluctuating facial asymmetry in a normal population. Fifty-four computed tomography (CT) facial models of average-looking and symmetrical Chinese subjects with a class I occlusion were used in this study. Eleven midline landmarks and 12 pairs of bilateral landmarks were digitized. The repeatability of the landmark digitization was first evaluated. A Procrustes analysis was then used to measure the fluctuating asymmetry of each CT model, after all of the models had been scaled to the average face size of the study sample. A principal component analysis was finally used to establish the direction of the fluctuating asymmetries. The results showed that there was excellent absolute agreement among the three repeated measurements. The mean fluctuating asymmetry of the average-size face varied at each anthropometric landmark site, ranging from 1.0. mm to 2.8. mm. At the 95% upper limit, the asymmetries ranged from 2.2. mm to 5.7. mm. Most of the asymmetry of the midline structures was mediolateral, while the asymmetry of the bilateral landmarks was more equally distributed. These values are for the average face. People with larger faces will have higher values, while subjects with smaller faces will have lower values.

KW - Computed tomography

KW - Fluctuating asymmetry

KW - Normal facial skeleton

KW - Principal component analysis

KW - Procrustes analysis

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