Financial toxicity in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the united states: Current state and future directions

Rohan Khera, Javier Valero-Elizondo, Khurram Nasir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has posed an increasing burden on Americans and the United States healthcare system for decades. In addition, ASCVD has had a substantial economic impact, with national expenditures for ASCVD projected to increase by over 2.5-fold from 2015 to 2035. This rapid increase in costs associated with health care for ASCVD has consequences for payers, healthcare providers, and patients. The issues to patients are particularly relevant in recent years, with a growing trend of shifting costs of treatment expenses to patients in various forms, such as high deductibles, copays, and coinsurance. Therefore, the issue of “financial toxicity” of health care is gaining significant attention. The term encapsulates the deleterious impact of healthcare expenditures for patients. This includes the economic burden posed by healthcare costs, but also the unintended consequences it creates in form of barriers to necessary medical care, quality of life as well tradeoffs related to non-health–related necessities. While the societal impact of rising costs related to ASCVD management have been actively studied and debated in policy circles, there is lack of a comprehensive assessment of the current literature on the financial impact of cost sharing for ASCVD patients and their families. In this review we systematically describe the scope and domains of financial toxicity, the instruments that measure various facets of healthcare-related financial toxicity, and accentuating factors and consequences on patient health and well-being. We further identify avenues and potential solutions for clinicians to apply in medical practice to mitigate the burden and consequences of out-of-pocket costs for ASCVD patients and their families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere017793
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 6 2020


  • Catastrophic expense
  • Cost-of-care
  • Financial distress
  • Financial toxicity
  • Medical bankruptcy
  • Medical bills
  • Out-of-pocket costs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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