Binding of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to the FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase leads to receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation as well as phosphorylation of multiple downstream signaling molecules that are recruited to the receptor either by direct binding or through adaptor proteins. The FGFR substrate 2 (FRS2) family consists of two members, FRS2α and FRS2β, and has been shown to recruit multiple signaling molecules, including Grb2 and Shp2, to FGFR1. To better understand how FRS2 interacted with FGFR1, in vivo binding assays with coexpressed FGFR1 and FRS2 recombinant proteins in mammalian cells were carried out. The results showed that the interaction of full-length FRS2α, but not FRS2β, with FGFR1 was enhanced by activation of the receptor kinase. The truncated FRS2α mutant that was comprised only of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain (PTB) bound FGFR1 constitutively, suggesting that the C-terminal sequence downstream the PTB domain inhibited the PTB-FGFR1 binding. Inactivation of the FGFR1 kinase and substitutions of tyrosine phosphorylation sites of FGFR1, but not FRS2α, reduced binding of FGFR1 with FRS2α. The results suggest that although the tyrosine autophosphorylation sites of FGFR1 did not constitute the binding sites for FRS2α, phosphorylation of these residues was essential for optimal interaction with FRS2α. In addition, it was demonstrated that the Grb2-binding sites of FRS2α are essential for mediating signals of FGFR1 to activate the FiRE enhancer of the mouse syndecan 1 gene. The results, for the first time, demonstrate the specific signals mediated by the Grb2-binding sites and further our understanding of FGF signal transmission at the adaptor level.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology