Fiber bundle based probe with polarization for coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microendoscopy imaging

Zhengfan Liu, Zhiyong Wang, Xi Wang, Xiaoyun Xu, Xu Chen, Jie Cheng, Xiaoyan Li, Shufen Chen, Jianguo Xin, Stephen T C Wong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

5 Scopus citations


The ability to visualize cellular structures and tissue molecular signatures in a live body could revolutionize the practice of surgery. Specifically, such technology is promising for replacing tissue extraction biopsy and offering new strategies for a broad range of intraoperative or surgical applications, including early cancer detection, tumor margin identification, nerve damage avoidance, and surgical outcomes enhancement. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microendoscopy offers a way to achieve this with label-free imaging capability and sub-cellular resolution. However, efficient collection of epi-CARS signals and reduction of nonlinear effects in fibers are two major challenges encountered in the development of fiber-based CARS microendoscopy. To circumvent this problem, we designed and developed a fiber bundle for a CARS microendoscopy prototype. The excitation lasers were delivered by a single multimode fiber at the center of the bundle while the epi-CARS signals were collected by multiple MMFs surrounding the central fiber. A polarization scheme was employed to suppress the four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in the excitation fiber. Our experimental results suggest that, with this fiber bundle and the polarization FWM-suppressing scheme, the signal-to-noise ratio of the CARS images was greatly enhanced through a combination of high collection efficiency of epi-CARS signals, isolation of excitation lasers, and suppression of FWM. Tissue imaging capability of the microendoscopy prototype was demonstrated by ex vivo imaging on mouse skin and lung tissues. This fiber bundlebased CARS microendoscopy prototype, with the polarization FWM-suppressing scheme, offers a promising platform for constructing efficient fiber-based CARS microendoscopes for label free intraoperative imaging applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMultiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XIII
StatePublished - 2013
EventMultiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XIII - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 3 2013Feb 5 2013

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherMultiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XIII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering
  • Endoscopy
  • Fiber optics
  • Four-wave mixing
  • Nonlinear microscopy
  • Nonlinear optics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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