Significance: Autofluorescence measurements of the metabolic cofactors NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) provide a label-free method to quantify cellular metabolism. However, the effect of extracellular pH on flavin lifetimes is currently unknown. Aim: To quantify the relationship between extracellular pH and the fluorescence lifetimes of FAD, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H]. Approach: Human breast cancer (BT474) and HeLa cells were placed in pH-adjusted media. Images of an intracellular pH indicator or endogenous fluorescence were acquired using two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging. Fluorescence lifetimes of FAD and FMN in solutions were quantified over the same pH range. Results: The relationship between intracellular and extracellular pH was linear in both cell lines. Between extracellular pH 4 to 9, FAD mean lifetimes increased with increasing pH. NAD(P)H mean lifetimes decreased with increasing pH between extracellular pH 5 to 9. The relationship between NAD(P)H lifetime and extracellular pH differed between the two cell lines. Fluorescence lifetimes of FAD, FAD-cholesterol oxidase, and FMN solutions decreased, showed no trend, and showed no trend, respectively, with increasing pH. Conclusions: Changes in endogenous fluorescence lifetimes with extracellular pH are mostly due to indirect changes within the cell rather than direct pH quenching of the endogenous molecules.
- flavin adenine dinucleotide
- fluorescence lifetime
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Biomedical Engineering