Extra-pulmonary manifestations in a large metropolitan area with a low incidence of tuberculosis

O. Y. Gonzalez, G. Adams, L. D. Teeter, T. T. Bui, James M. Musser, Edward A. Graviss

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: The increases in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) have been largely due to human immuno-deficiency virus co-infection. The rates of EPTB have remained constant despite the decline in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate covariates associated with EPTB. METHODS: A 4-year cohort of EPTB patients was compared with PTB cases. Enrollees were assessed for TB risk, medical records were reviewed, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were fingerprinted. RESULTS: We identified 538 EPTB cases (28.6%) in a total of 1878 enrollees. The most common sites of infection were lymph nodes (43%) and pleura (23%). EPTB cases included 320 (59%) males, 382 (71%) patients were culture-positive, and 332 (86.9%) patient isolates were fingerprinted. Fewer EPTB than PTB patients belonged to clustered M. tuberculosis strains (58% vs. 65%; P = 0.02). A multivariate model identified an increased risk for EPTB among African Americans (OR = 1.9, P = 0.01), HIV-seropositive (OR = 3.1, P < 0.01), liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.3, P = 0.02), and age <18 years (OR = 2.0, P = 0.04). Patients with concomitant pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections were more likely to die within 6 months of TB diagnosis (OR = 2.3, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: African American ethnicity is an independent risk factor for EPTB. Mortality at 6 months is partly due to the dissemination of M. tuberculosis and the severity of the underlying co-morbidity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1178-1185
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2003


  • Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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