External Ventricular Drain Placement Teleproctoring Using a Novel Camera-Projector Navigation System: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Brandon D. Philbrick, James Hu, Lily McCarthy, Ikaasa Suri, Jonathan T. Dullea, Roshini Kalagara, Jhoneldrick Millares, Kurt A. Yaeger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Teleproctoring is an emerging method of bedside clinical teaching; however, its feasibility has been limited by the available technologies. The use of novel tools that incorporate 3-dimensional environmental information and feedback might offer better bedside teaching options for neurosurgical procedures, including external ventricular drain placement. Methods: A platform with a camera-projector system was used to proctor medical students on placing external ventricular drains on an anatomic model as a proof-of-concept study. Three-dimensional depth information of the model and surrounding environment was captured by the camera system and provided to the proctor who could provide projected annotations in a geometrically compensated manner onto the head model in real time. The medical students were randomized to identify Kocher's point on the anatomic model with or without the navigation system. The time required to identify Kocher's point and the accuracy were measured as a proxy for determining the effectiveness of the navigation proctoring system. Results: Twenty students were enrolled in the present study. Those in the experimental group identified Kocher's point an average of 130 seconds faster than did the control group (P < 0.001). The mean diagonal distance from Kocher's point was 8.0 ± 4.29 mm for the experimental group compared with 23.6 ± 21.98 mm for the control group (P = 0.053). Of the 10 students randomized to the camera-projector system arm, 70% were accurate to within 1 cm of Kocher's point compared with 40% of the control arm (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Camera-projector systems for bedside procedure proctoring and navigation are a viable and valuable technology. We demonstrated its viability for external ventricular drain placement as a proof-of-concept. However, the versatility of this technology indicates that that it could be useful for a variety of even more complex neurosurgical procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-174
Number of pages6
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Bedside procedure
  • External ventricular drain
  • Medical education
  • Navigation
  • Proctoring
  • Drainage/methods
  • Humans
  • Computer Simulation
  • Neurosurgical Procedures/methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery


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