Experimental studies of surface waves inside a cylindrical container

Cunbiao Lee, Huaiwu Peng, Huijing Yuan, Jiezhi Wu, Mingde Zhou, Fazle Hussain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


We experimentally investigate the dynamics of surface waves excited by oscillations from a cylindrical sidewall. Particle-imaging-velocimetry measurements with fluorescent particles were used to determine the flow patterns near the sidewall of the cylindrical fluid container and to identify the locations of the evolving air water interfaces. The high-frequency wall oscillations created four jets that originate at the cylindrical sidewall. Four vortex streets shed from the jets propagate from the sidewall to the centre of the container and subsequently excite a low-frequency gravity wave. The interaction between this gravitational surface wave and the high-frequency capillary waves was found to be responsible for creating droplet splash at the water surface. This phenomenon was first described as Long-Xi or dragon wash in ancient China. The physical processes for generating the droplet ejection, including the circular capillary waves, azimuthal waves, streaming jets and low-frequency gravity waves, are described in this paper.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-62
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
StatePublished - Jun 25 2011


  • capillary waves
  • instability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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