Bacteriophage M13 virions are very stable nanoparticles that can be modified by chemical and genetic methods. The capsid proteins can be functionalized in a variety of chemical reactions without loss of particle integrity. In addition, Genetic Code Expansion (GCE) permits the introduction of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into displayed peptides and proteins. The incorporation of ncAAs into phage libraries has led to the discovery of high-affinity binders with low nanomolar dissociation constant (KD) values that can potentially serve as inhibitors. This article reviews how bioconjugation and the incorporation of ncAAs during translation have expanded the chemistry of peptides and proteins displayed by M13 virions for a variety of purposes.
- antibody fragments
- combinatorial peptide libraries
- stop codon suppression
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)