The introduction of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has forever altered the natural course of this incurable and disabling neurodegenerative disorder. Despite early diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS and early initiation of therapy, patients still experience breakthrough relapses and progression of their underlying MS pathology. The imperfect effectiveness, side effects, and toxicity of these agents, emphasize the necessity for development of more effective medications with less adverse events. This chapter presents readers with the most current information on the nature, mechanism(s) of action, and side effects of the most promising experimental agents currently under clinical trials. Some of the agents now at different stages of clinical trial have emerged as both safe and promising. The understanding of MS etiology will lead to the development of increasingly specific, safer, and effective treatments for MS by neuroscientists and neurologists.