48 Scopus citations


Despite technical advances in balloon design and technique, there has been little improvement of primary patency rates after balloon-based endovascular interventions for all but focal femoropopliteal lesions. Improving on stainless steel models, nitinol stents have been associated with favorable short- and midterm primary patency rates; studies with longer-term follow-up will be required to learn whether restenosis is ongoing, with continued loss of primary patency. Studies in recent years have shown varying incidences of mechanical fatigue leading to nitinol stent fracture. Covered stents are designed to prevent the tissue infiltration and intimal hyperplasia that can lead to bare metal in-stent restenosis. Several clinical studies, mainly single-center registries, have demonstrated a general effectiveness of the Hemobahn/Viabahn polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-grafts, approved for femoral arterial occlusive disease, and have helped to distinguish indications for use and to delineate possible failure modes. A multicenter randomized trial, which has completed enrollment, will compare the Viabahn with self-expanding bare nitinol stents. The primary use of drug-eluting stents (DES) has become routine clinical practice for coronary artery disease. The 2-phase multicenter randomized double-blind SIROCCO trials have been completed, with results published through 24 months. Follow-up demonstrated the feasibility and safety of deploying sirolimus-eluting stents in the femoropopliteal segment but failed to show superior efficacy for DES versus bare nitinol stents. However, the restenosis rates with bare metal stents were unexpectedly low. A paclitaxel-eluting stent without a polymer coating is currently being evaluated in the recently enrolled Zilver PTX randomized trial and international registry. A polymer-based everolimus-eluting stent is being evaluated for femoropopliteal use in the nonrandomized European STRIDES trial. Balloons coated with paclitaxel have recently been evaluated for simple femoropopliteal disease with encouraging results through 2 years of follow-up. The bioabsorbable stent concept emerged in response to the potential issues with metal stents, but to date no investigational device has successfully overcome issues such as relatively low radial force and variable degradation rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)II82-97
JournalJournal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists
Issue number2 Suppl 2
StatePublished - Apr 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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