Evidence-Based Medicine: History, Review, Criticisms, and Pitfalls

Iqbal Ratnani, Sahar Fatima, Muhammad Mohsin Abid, Zehra Surani, Salim Surani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the use of high-quality clinical research in making decisions about the care of patients. Its formal origin dates back to the mid-nineteenth century, and since then, it has continued to evolve. The best research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values are described as the foundations of EBM. However, several tools and skills have been developed and added over time. EBM has faced a lot of criticism, and the pitfalls are widely discussed and published in the medical literature. The biggest challenge is the changing paradigm of healthcare, cost-effectiveness, and changing evidence which has led to controversies and challenges in the rapid adaptation of the EBM. This review article discusses the history, conception, and evolution of modern-day EBM. In addition, we discuss why EBM has been criticized and highlight the pitfalls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e35266
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


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