Evaluation and treatment of rhinosinusitis with primary antibody deficiency in adults: Evidence-based review with recommendations

Chadi A. Makary, Amber U. Luong, Antoine Azar, Jean Kim, Omar G. Ahmed, Mohamad R. Chaaban, Cecilia C. Damask, Paavali Hannikainen, Stephanie Joe, Kent Lam, Brian P. Peppers, Anju T. Peters, Elina Toskala, Sandra Y. Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: There is clear evidence that the prevalence of primary antibody deficiency (PAD) is higher in patients with recurrent and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) than in the general population. The purpose of this multi-institutional and multidisciplinary evidence-based review with recommendations (EBRR) is to thoroughly review the literature on rhinosinusitis with PAD, summarize the existing evidence, and provide recommendations on the evaluation and management of rhinosinusitis in patients with PAD. Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were systematically reviewed from inception through August 2022. Studies on the evaluation and management of rhinosinusitis in PAD patients were included. An iterative review process was utilized in accordance with EBRR guidelines. Levels of evidence and recommendations on the evaluation and management principles for PAD were generated. Results: A total of 42 studies were included in this evidence-based review. These studies were evaluated on incidence of PAD in rhinosinusitis patients, incidence of rhinosinusitis in PAD patients, and on the different treatment modalities used and their outcome. The aggregate quality of evidence was varied across reviewed domains. Conclusion: Based on the currently available evidence, PAD can occur in up to 50% of patients with recalcitrant CRS. Despite the presence of multiple studies addressing rhinosinusitis and PAD, the level of evidence supporting different treatment options continues to be lacking. Optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach through collaboration with clinical immunology. There is need for higher-level studies that compare different treatments in patients with PAD and rhinosinusitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2205-2230
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
Issue number12
Early online dateJun 10 2023
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • antibody deficiency
  • chronic rhinosinusitis
  • evaluation
  • immunodeficiency disorders
  • recommendations
  • recurrent acute rhinosinusitis
  • treatment
  • Prevalence
  • Humans
  • Rhinitis/diagnosis
  • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
  • Adult
  • Chronic Disease
  • Sinusitis/diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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