Evaluation and management of the swollen optic disk in cryptococcal meningitis

Mohammed Rigi, Khurrum Khan, Stacy V. Smith, Ayman O. Suleiman, Andrew G. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of cryptococcal infection. In addition to infiltrative and inflammatory mechanisms, intracranial hypertension commonly complicates cryptococcal meningitis and may cause significant visual and neurological morbidity and mortality. The mainstays of treatment for cryptococcal meningitis include standard antifungal therapy, management of intracranial hypertension, and treatment of underlying immunosuppressive conditions. Early and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension in accordance with established guidelines reduces the risk of long-term visual and neurological complications and death. Traditional recommendations for treating elevated intracranial pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension including acetazolamide, weight loss, and avoiding serial lumbar punctures-are not helpful in cryptococcal meningitis and may be harmful.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSurvey of Ophthalmology
StatePublished - Oct 14 2016


  • Cryptococcal meningitis
  • Cryptococcosis
  • Elevated intracranial pressure
  • Papilledema

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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