Evaluation and management of intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Nestor F. Esnaola, Joshua E. Meyer, Andreas Karachristos, Jennifer L. Maranki, E. Ramsay Camp, Crystal S. Denlinger

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

150 Scopus citations


Cholangiocarcinomas are rare biliary tract tumors that are often challenging to diagnose and treat. Cholangiocarcinomas are generally categorized as intrahepatic or extrahepatic depending on their anatomic location. The majority of patients with cholangiocarcinoma do not have any of the known or suspected risk factors and present with advanced disease. The optimal evaluation and management of patients with cholangiocarcinoma requires thoughtful integration of clinical information, imaging studies, cytology and/or histology, as well as prompt multidisciplinary evaluation. The current review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cholangiocarcinoma and, in particular, on the role of endoscopy, surgery, transplantation, radiotherapy, systemic therapy, and liver-directed therapies in the curative or palliative treatment of these individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1349-1369
Number of pages21
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • chemotherapy
  • cholangiocarcinoma
  • diagnosis
  • endoscopy
  • extrahepatic
  • intrahepatic
  • radiotherapy
  • surgery
  • transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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