Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors: Molecular Characteristics and Human Impacts

S. Safe, I. Jutooru, G. Chadalapaka

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


Environmental estrogens including trace contaminants and phytoestrogens have been classified as endocrine disruptors (EDs), and it is hypothesized that ED compounds may be etiologic agents in male reproductive tract problems and breast cancer in women. It is clear from experimental studies that industrial estrogenic compounds (xenoestrogens) such as bisphenol A and phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) that may exhibit structure-dependent and tissue-specific estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities. However, there is minimal evidence showing that ED compounds are causal factors in breast cancer, male reproductive tract problems such as decreased sperm counts and fertility, or prostate and testicular cancers. Moreover, many of the so-called global male reproductive problems such as decreased sperm counts are currently not recognized as global problems and may be due to unidentified regional problems including obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCellular and Molecular Toxicology
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9780080468686
StatePublished - Aug 12 2010


  • Antiestrogens
  • Breast cancer
  • Endocrine disruptors
  • Estrogens
  • Sperm counts
  • Xenoestrogens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors: Molecular Characteristics and Human Impacts'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this