Clinical trials and animal studies have revealed that loss of circulating estrogen induces rapid changes in whole body metabolism, fat distribution, and insulin action. The metabolic effects of estrogen are mediated primarily by its receptor, estrogen receptor-α; however, the detailed understanding of its mechanisms is incomplete. Recent investigations suggest that estrogen receptor-α elicits the metabolic effects of estrogen by genomic, nongenomic, and mitochondrial mechanisms that regulate insulin signaling, substrate oxidation, and energetics. This paper reviews clinical and experimental studies on the mechanisms of estrogen and the current state of knowledge regarding physiological and pathobiological influences of estrogen on metabolism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism