The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoter was used to explore the molecular mechanisms of estradiol (E2)-dependent repression of gene transcription. E2 inhibited basal activity and abolished TNF-α activation of the TNF-α promoter. The E2-inhibitory element was mapped to the -125 to -82 region of the TNF-α promoter, known as the TNF-responsive element (TNF-RE). An AP-1-like site in the TNF-RE is essential for repression activity. Estrogen receptor (ER) β is more potent than ERα at repressing the -1044 TNF-α promoter and the TNF-RE upstream of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter, but weaker at activating transcription through an estrogen response element. The activation function-2 (AF-2) surface in the ligand-binding domain is required for repression, because anti-estrogens and AF-2 mutations impair repression. The requirement of the AF-2 surface for repression is probably due to its capacity to recruit p160 coactivators or related coregulators, because overexpressing the coactivator glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein-1 enhances repression, whereas a glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein-1 mutant unable to interact with the AF-2 surface is ineffective. Furthermore, receptor interacting protein 140 prevents repression by ERβ, probably by interacting with the AF-2 surface and blocking the binding of endogenous coactivators. These studies demonstrate that E2-mediated repression requires the AF-2 surface and the participation of coactivators or other coregulatory proteins.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - Dec 21 1999
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