The middle ear infection is the most common childhood infection. In order to elucidate the cell and molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial recognition and innate immune response, we have established a stable human middle ear cell line, which has contributed to the current knowledge concerning the molecular pathogenesis of the middle ear infection. The inner ear, a sensory organ responsible for hearing and balance, is filled with inner ear fluid, and disturbance of the fluid homeostasis results in dizziness and hearing impairment. It has been suggested that the endolymphatic sac (ES) may play a critical role in the fluid homeostasis of the inner ear. We have established a stable human ES cell line and are undertaking cell and molecular characterization of this cell line.