Environmental levels and toxicological potencies of a novel mixed halogenated carbazole

Miren Pena-Abaurrea, Matthew Robson, Sri Chaudhuri, Nicole Riddell, Robert McCrindle, Brock Chittim, Robert Parette, Un Ho Jin, Stephen Safe, David Poirier, Ralph Ruffolo, Richard Dyer, Rachael Fletcher, Paul A. Helm, Eric J. Reiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The present work involves an extensive analytical and toxicological description of a recently identified mixed halogenated carbazole found in sediment samples, 1,8-dibromo-3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazole (BCCZ). Concentrations and the relative effect potency (REP) were calculated for the target BCCZ in a set of stream sediments collected in 2008 in Ontario, Canada. The levels calculated for BCCZ as compared to those previously assessed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the same samples revealed a significant contribution of BCCZ to the total organic chemical contamination (<1%–95%; average 37%). The corresponding dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs) of BCCZ in the sediment extracts were estimated from experimental REP data. The experimental data presented supports the classification of this emerging halogenated chemical as a contaminant of emerging environmental concern. Although potential emission sources could not be identified, this study highlights the importance of on-going research for complete characterization of halogenated carbazoles and related compounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-172
Number of pages7
JournalEmerging Contaminants
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2016


  • Dioxin-like
  • GC×GC
  • Halogenated carbazoles
  • Levels
  • REP
  • Regulation
  • Risk assessment
  • TEQ

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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