Engineering the ABIO-BIO interface of neurostimulation electrodes using polypyrrole and bioactive hydrogels

Ankita Bhat, Alexa R. Graham, Hemang Trivedi, Matthew K. Hogan, Philip J. Horner, Anthony Guiseppi-Elie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Following spinal cord injury, the use of electrodes for neurostimulation in animal models has been shown to stimulate muscle movement, however, the efficacy of such treatment is impaired by increased interfacial impedance caused by fibrous encapsulation of the electrode. Sputter-deposited gold-on-polyimide electrodes were modified by potentiostatic electrodeposition of poly(pyrrole-co-3-pyrrolylbutyrate-conj-aminoethylmethacrylate): sulfopropyl methacrylate [P(Py-co-PyBA-conj-AEMA):SPMA] to various charge densities (0-100 mC/cm2) to address interfacial impedance and coated with a phosphoryl choline containing bioactive hydrogel to address biocompatibility at the ABIO-BIO interface. Electrodes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (surface morphology), multiple-scan rate cyclic voltammetry (peak current and electroactive area), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (charge transfer resistance and membrane resistance). SEM analysis and electroactive area calculations identified films fabricated with a charge density of 50 mC/cm2 as well suited for neurostimulation electrodes. Charge transfer resistance demonstrated a strong inverse correlation (-0.83) with charge density of electrodeposition. On average, the addition of polypyrrole and hydrogel to neurostimulation electrodes decreased charge transfer resistance by 82 %. These results support the use of interfacial engineering techniques to mitigate high interfacial impedance and combat the foreign body response towards epidurally implanted neurostimulation electrodes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)897-907
Number of pages11
JournalPure and Applied Chemistry
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • MMC-18
  • biosensors
  • electrodes
  • hydrogels
  • impedance
  • neurostimulation
  • polypyrrole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Engineering the ABIO-BIO interface of neurostimulation electrodes using polypyrrole and bioactive hydrogels'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this