Intraperitoneal dissemination of ovarian cancers is preceded by the development of chemoresistant tumors with malignant ascites. Despite the high levels of chemoresistance and relapse observed in ovarian cancers, there are no in vitro models to understand the development of chemoresistance in situ. Method: We describe a highly integrated approach to establish an in vitro model of chemoresistance and stemness in ovarian cancer, using the 3D hanging drop spheroid platform. The model was established by serially passaging non-adherent spheroids. At each passage, the effectiveness of the model was evaluated via measures of proliferation, response to treatment with cisplatin and a novel ALDH1A inhibitor. Concomitantly, the expression and tumor initiating capacity of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) was analyzed. RNA-seq was used to establish gene signatures associated with the evolution of tumorigenicity, and chemoresistance. Lastly, a mathematical model was developed to predict the emergence of CSCs during serial passaging of ovarian cancer spheroids. Results: Our serial passage model demonstrated increased cellular proliferation, enriched CSCs, and emergence of a platinum resistant phenotype. In vivo tumor xenograft assays indicated that later passage spheroids were significantly more tumorigenic with higher CSCs, compared to early passage spheroids. RNA-seq revealed several gene signatures supporting the emergence of CSCs, chemoresistance, and malignant phenotypes, with links to poor clinical prognosis. Our mathematical model predicted the emergence of CSC populations within serially passaged spheroids, concurring with experimentally observed data. Conclusion: Our integrated approach illustrates the utility of the serial passage spheroid model for examining the emergence and development of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer in a controllable and reproducible format.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research