Purpose: The natural history of renal artery stenosis is progression with subsequent deterioration of kidney function and development of renovascular hypertension. Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty is effective in the treatment of nonostial lesions but less effective for ostial stenoses. Because of the poor technical success experienced with percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty, stenting of ostial stenoses is becoming the standard of endovascular care. In this retrospective study we analyzed the technical and clinical outcomes after renal artery stenting in 73 consecutive patients. Patients and Methods: From July 1992 to January 1999, 88 Palmaz stents were deployed in 85 renal artery stenoses in 73 patients, with a mean age of 67.9 ± 9.4 years. Twelve patients (16%) underwent bilateral stent placement. Atheromatous lesions were the most prevalent (99%: 82% ostial, 16% nonostial). Most stents were implanted for sub-optimal balloon dilation (52%) or dissection (24%). Mean percent stenosis was 86% ± 12%. Renal insufficiency (creatinine level ≥ 1.5 mg/dL) was present hi 50 (68%) patients, and uncontrolled hypertension (systolic ≥ 160 mm Hg or diastolic ≥ 90 mm Hg with more than two medications) was present in 57 (78%). Results; Primary technical success was achieved in 89%. At the initial procedure, three additional stents were placed for residual stenoses, and urokinase was used to treat one intraprocedural stent thrombosis, resulting in an assisted primary technical success rate of 94%. Major complications occurred in 9.1% of stents placed: access artery thrombosis (n = 4), renal artery extravasation (n = 1), renal artery thrombosis (n = 1), and hematoma requiring operation (n = 2). Long-term clinical data were available on 69 (95%) patients at 20 ± 17 months. Overall, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic pressures (P < .001) and reduction of medication (P < .01) were noted without a change in renal function (P = NS). Angiography was performed on 22 patients at 11.3 ± 10.3 months for persistent or worsening renal function or hypertension or for other reasons; 10 patients had significant restenoses in 14 renal arteries. Conclusion: Our retrospective analysis demonstrates that endovascular stenting of renal artery stenosis in patients with poorly controlled hypertension or deteriorating renal function is a safe and effective alternative treatment to surgical management.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine