Endovascular Porcine Model of Iliocaval Venous Thrombosis

Adeline Schwein, Louis Magnus, Judit Markovits, Ponraj Chinnadurai, Kyle Autry, Leslie Jenkins, Rebecca Barnes, Dragoslava P. Vekilov, Dipan Shah, Nabil Chakfé, Jean Bismuth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objective: To develop a large animal model of iliocaval deep venous thrombosis (DVT), which enables development and evaluation of interventional management and existing imaging modalities. Methods: The experimental protocol consisted of a total endovascular approach. Pigs were percutaneously accessed through the right internal jugular and bilateral femoral veins. Three balloon catheters were inflated to induce venous stasis in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral common iliac veins (CIVs). Hypercoagulability was induced by injecting 10 000 IU of thrombin. After 2.5 hours, the balloon catheters were removed before animal recovery. After seven, 14, 21, 28, or 35 days, animals were euthanised; the IVC and CIV were harvested en bloc, cross sectioned and prepared for histological examination. Multimodal imaging was performed before and after thrombus creation, and before animal euthanasia. Results: Thirteen female domestic pigs with a mean weight of 59.3 kilograms were used. The mean maximum IVC diameter and area were 16.4 mm and 1.2 cm2, respectively. The procedure was successful in 12 animals with occlusive venous thrombosis in the region of interest on immediate post-operative magnetic resonance venography and a mean thrombus volume of 19.8 cm3. Clinical pathology results showed platelet consumption, D dimer increase, and inflammatory response. Histological evaluation demonstrated a red cell, fibrin, and platelet rich thrombus on day 1, with progressive inflammatory cell infiltration from day 7. Collagen deposition appeared in week 2 and neovascularisation in week 3. Conclusion: Endovascular occlusion combined with thrombin infusion is a reliable minimally invasive approach to produce acute and subacute DVT in a large animal model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)623-630
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Animal model
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Endovascular
  • Experimental
  • Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Thrombin
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
  • Endovascular Procedures/methods
  • Vascular Patency/physiology
  • Animals
  • Swine
  • Female
  • Iliac Vein/diagnostic imaging
  • Stents
  • Disease Models, Animal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery


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