Various approaches for enteral access exist, but because there is no single best approach it should be tailored to the needs of the patient. This article discusses the various enteral access techniques for nasoenteric tubes, gastrostomy, gastrojejunostomy, and direct jejunostomy as well as their indications, contraindications, and pitfalls. Also discussed is enteral access in altered anatomy. In addition, complications associated with these endoscopic techniques and how to either prevent or properly manage them are reviewed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1091-1113
Number of pages23
JournalSurgical Clinics of North America
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Endoscopic feeding access
  • Nasoenteric feeding catheters
  • Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
  • Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy
  • Clinical Competence
  • Humans
  • Malnutrition/surgery
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/education
  • Enteral Nutrition/methods
  • Intubation, Gastrointestinal/methods
  • Jejunostomy/methods
  • Gastrostomy/methods
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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