Endoscopic-assisted free muscle flaps for facial reanimation

Michael J. Klebuc, Andres F. Doval

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Endoscopic assistance can be utilized to improve the cosmetic results of free muscle flap, smile restoration surgery. The technique facilitates provision of the surgery via a limited preauricular approach avoiding the traditional submandibular-cervical incision. Enhanced visualization also facilitates proper suture anchoring of the muscle flap to the orbicularis oris, avoiding unwanted lateral displacement and a malpositioned nasolabial fold. The superficial temporal artery and vein are the preferred recipient vessels. The microsurgical nerve repair is frequently performed before the microvascular anastomosis to accommodate for the more limited exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationFacial Palsy
Subtitle of host publicationTechniques for Reanimation of the Paralyzed Face
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9783030507848
ISBN (Print)9783030507831
StatePublished - May 27 2021


  • Endoscopic assistance
  • Facial paralysis
  • Facial reanimation
  • Free muscle flap
  • Smile restoration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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