Introduction Rectal bleeding is the most common symptom of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This case investigates the efficacy of emergency surgery for FAP with total proctocolectomy end ileostomy for recurrent lower gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage in an uninsured patient in a 266-bed community hospital. The optimal treatment for FAP with acute lower GI hemorrhage and hemodynamic compromise unresponsive to conservative management is unclear. Presentation of case A 41-year-old uninsured African American man with no past medical or family history presented to the emergency department with hematochezia lasting three days. A clinical diagnosis of FAP made on colonoscopy with biopsies revealed villous and tubulovillous adenomas without dysplasia. After blood products resuscitation, an emergency total proctocolectomy with end ileostomy was performed. A staged ileal J pouch to anal anastomosis and creation of protective loop ileostomy was performed months later after securing state funding. A final loop ileostomy reversal occurred six weeks later. His self reported quality of life is improved. Discussion Lower GI hemorrhage from FAP unresponsive to blood products may require emergency total proctocolectomy and end ileostomy with a staged ileal J pouch to anal anastomosis, which can be done in a community acute care hospital for an uninsured patient. Conclusion A total proctocolectomy is feasible in the emergency setting in an uninsured patient with lower GI bleeding and FAP. A staged ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis is easier to justify to the hospital compared to a staged completion colectomy with proctectomy. It is essential to monitor the ileo-anal anastomosis with anoscopy.
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