Regenerative medicine has made substantial progress in addressing congenital and acquired diseases that result in end organ failure by combining the principles of cell biology, materials science, engineering, and transplantation. This chapter will discuss the basic principles of tissue engineering and the contemporary use of stem cells in the field of urological research. It will also provide a review of leading stem cell procurement techniques utilized in contemporary tissue engineering labs. These include embryonic stem cell harvest, parthenogenesis, nuclear transfer, and most recently, induced pluripotent stem cells.
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