Translationally Controlled Tumor-associated Protein (TCTP) is a small, 23 kDa multifunctional and ubiquitous protein localized both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is evolutionarily highly conserved. Certain aspects of its structure show remarkable similarities to guanine nucleotide-free chaperons Mss4 and Dss4 suggesting that at least some functions of TCTP may depend on its chaperon-like action on other proteins. Besides other functions, TCTP is clearly involved in cell cycle regulation. It is also regulated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner suggesting a reciprocal interaction between this protein and the cell cycle-regulating machinery. TCTP also interacts with the cytoskeleton, mostly with actin microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). It regulates the cytoskeleton organization and through this action it also influences cell shape and motility. The exact role of TCTP in cell cycle and cytoskeleton regulation is certainly not fully understood. In this chapter, we summarize recent data on cell cycle and cytoskeletal aspects of TCTP regulatory role.