Electromotive drug administration to the urinary bladder: An animal model and preliminary results

Tayfun Gürpinar, Luan Truong, Hoo Yin Wong, Donald P. Griffith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Purpose: Electromotive drug delivery (EMDA) is the use of an electrical field to enhance penetration of ionized drugs into local tissues. Intraurinary EMDA may be of value in the treatment of various pathological conditions involving the urinary bladder, prostate gland and urethra. We have developed an animal model to study this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: Anesthetized adult mongrel dogs were studied. An intravesical anode was inserted through a Foley catheter into the urinary bladder. Two patch electrodes were positioned on the animals' abdominal skin. Both skin and intravesical electrodes were attached to a direct current generator. The bladder was then distended with an anionic blue dye (methylene blue). Fifteen milliamperes (15 mA) pulsed direct current was applied for 40 minutes. After EMDA, the bladder was surgically removed and representative sections of full thickness bladder wall were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Methylene blue was used to visually demonstrate EMDA-enhanced anion penetration into bladder submucosa and muscularis. Result: This experimental model demonstrates significant submucosal and muscularis methylene blue penetration in the presence of the electric field. Conclusion: Electromotive drug delivery technology may have applications for treating bladder pathology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1496-1501
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996


  • drug delivery
  • iontophoresis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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