Electrical activity of the bladder is attenuated by intravesical inhibition of P2X2/3 receptors during micturition in female rats

Betsy H. Salazar, Kristopher A. Hoffman, Chuan Zhang, Alex Kavanagh, Yingchun Zhang, Timothy B. Boone, Alvaro Munoz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: To simultaneously monitor electrical discharges in various bladder regions and the external urethral sphincter (EUS) during voiding contractions, and to assess the functional role of myogenic modulation of the lower urinary tract (LUT) by ionotropic purinergic receptors containing the P2X3 subunit. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane, and implanted with a suprapubic catheter for open cystometry. Flexible microelectrodes were placed ventrally in the bladder dome, upper bladder, lower bladder, and bladder base, along with the middle section of the exposed EUS. Intravesical P2X3-containing receptors were blocked with AF-323, a specific P2X3-P2X2/3 receptor antagonist. A digital electrophysiology amplifier was used to record electrical and cystometric signals throughout the LUT. Results: Electrical activity in the LUT started before effective voiding contractions. Bladder pressure and electrical waveforms showed consistent out-of-phase activity when compared with the recordings made at the EUS. This pattern was also observed during voiding contractions in the presence of AF-353, supporting the hypothesis that during bladder distension, activation of P2X3-containing receptors is required for voiding contractions. Furthermore, the inhibition of P2X3-containing receptors significantly decreased the amplitude of electrical signals in the urinary bladder, but not the base or EUS. Conclusions: Our results provide novel information about the regulation of the micturition process by P2X3-containing receptors located in the inner layers of the bladder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-269
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Neurourology Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017


  • Electrophysiology
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms
  • Purinergic P2X receptor antagonists
  • Urinary bladder
  • Urination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Electrical activity of the bladder is attenuated by intravesical inhibition of P2X2/3 receptors during micturition in female rats'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this