Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: Mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation

Peera Hemarajata, James Versalovic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

331 Scopus citations

Abstract

Recent explorations of the human gut microbiota suggest that perturbations of microbial communities may increase predisposition to different disease phenotypes. Dietary nutrients may be converted into metabolites by intestinal microbes that serve as biologically active molecules affecting regulatory functions in the host. Probiotics may restore the composition of the gut microbiome and introduce beneficial functions to gut microbial communities, resulting in amelioration or prevention of gut inflammation and other intestinal or systemic disease phenotypes. This review describes how diet and intestinal luminal conversion by gut microbes play a role in shaping the structure and function of intestinal microbial communities. Proposed mechanisms of probiosis include alterations of composition and function of the human gut microbiome, and corresponding effects on immunity and neurobiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-51
Number of pages13
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2013

Keywords

  • diet
  • gut microbiota
  • immunomodulation
  • Lactobacillus
  • nervous system
  • probiotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

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