Effects of 5 HIV protease inhibitors on vasomotor function and superoxide anion production in porcine coronary arteries

Hong Chai, Hui Yang, Shaoyu Yan, Min Li, Peter H. Lin, Alan B. Lumsden, Qizhi Yao, Changyi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) have been implicated to cause cardiovascular complications. Previous studies demonstrated that the PI ritonavir (RTV) caused endothelial dysfunction in porcine arteries. This study investigated and compared the effects of 5 commonly used PIs on vasomotor function, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, and oxidative stress in porcine coronary arteries. Vessel rings were incubated with 15 μM of RTV, amprenavir (APV), saquinavir (SQV), indinavir (IDV), or nelfinavir (NFV) for 24 hours. Vasomotor function was studied using a myograph system. The contractility of the rings was significantly reduced for RTV and SQV. In response to bradykinin at 10-5 M, the endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly reduced for RTV, APV, and SQV. The eNOS mRNA levels were significantly reduced for RTV, APV, and SQV. Furthermore, the superoxide anion (O2 -) levels of the vessels were significantly increased for RTV and APV. It was found that nitric oxide production was decreased, whereas the level of nitrotyrosine proteins was increased in RTV-treated vessels. Furthermore, antioxidant seleno-L-methionine (SeMet) reversed RTV-induced O2 - production and vasomotor dysfunction. Thus, the HIV PIs RTV, APV, and SQV at 15 μM have more potent in vitro effects on vasomotor dysfunction, eNOS downregulation, and O2 - production than IDV and NFV. The antioxidant SeMet can block these adverse effects of RTV. The results suggest that antioxidant therapy may have applications for controlling PI-associated cardiovascular complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-19
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 1 2005


  • Antioxidant
  • Coronary artery
  • HIV protease inhibitor
  • Nitric oxide synthase
  • Oxidative stress
  • Superoxide anion
  • Vasomotor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Immunology


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of 5 HIV protease inhibitors on vasomotor function and superoxide anion production in porcine coronary arteries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this