The interaction between 2′-deoxycytidine (dCyd) and 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C), administered at pharmacologically achievable concentrations, was examined in four continuously cultured human leukemia cell lines, HL-60, KG-1, K-562, and CCRF-CEM. In three of the cell lines (HL-60, K-562, and CCRF-CEM), co-administration of 20 or 50 μM dCyd with 10 μM ara-C reduced ara-CTP formation by at least 90% and incorporation of ara-C into DNA by at least 80%. In contrast, KG-1 cells exhibited substantially smaller reductions in both ara-CTP formation and incorporation of ara-C into DNA under identical conditions. KG-1 cells were distinguished by the highest activity of the enzyme cytidine deaminase of the four lines assayed, and exhibited the smallest increments in the intracellular accumulation of both dCyd and deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) in response to exogenous dCyd. Co-administration of 1 mM tetrahydrouridine (THU) or 0.5 mM deoxytetrahydrouridine (dTHU) had little effect on the ability of dCyd to antagonize ara-C metabolism in HL-60, KG-1 and K-562 cells. In contrast, these deaminase inhibitors substantially increased the intracellular accumulation of dCTP as well as the ability of dCyd to antagonize ara-CTP formation and incorporation of ara-C into DNA in KG-1 cells. THU and dTHU also permitted dCyd to antagonize ara-C growth inhibitory effects in KG-1 cells to the extent observed in the other leukemic cell lines. These studies suggest that the intracellular deamination of exogenous deoxycytidine may influence the degree to which this nucleoside antagonizes ara-C metabolism and toxicity in some leukemic cells. They also raise the possibility that deaminase inhibitors may be employed to modulate, and perhaps to improve, the therapeutic selectivity of pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ara-C and dCyd in the treatment of acute leukemia in man.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research