Effect of hemopoietic growth factors g-CSF and pIXY 321 on the activity of high dose ARA-c in human myeloid leukemia cells

Kapil Bhalla, Elena Tourkina, Yue Huang, Caroline Tang, Mary Ella Mahoney, Ana Maria Ibrado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Recently, high dose Ara-C (HIDAC) has been shown to induce leukemic cell death in vitro by the alternative process of programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis which correlates with the inhibition of their clonogenic survival. Since co-treatment with hemopoietic growth facts (HGFs) GM-CSF and IL-3 have been demonstrated to enhance the metabolism and cytotoxic effects of HIDAC against leukemic progenitor cells, we examined the effect of HGFs pIXY 321 (a GM-CSF/IL3 fusion protein) and G-CSF on HIDAC induced PCD and related gene expressions as well as HIDAC mediated colony growth inhibition of human myeloid leukemia cells. Treatment with G-CSF or pIXY 321 alone for up to 24 hours neither suppressed nor induced PCD in HL-60 or KG-1 cells. However, exposure to either of the HGFs for 20 hours followed by a combined treatment for 4 hours with HIDAC plus either of the HGFs versus HIDAC alone significantly enhanced the intracellular Ara-CTP accumulation and the oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of PCD. This was temporally associated with a marked induction of C-jun expression but a significant repression in BCL-2 and c-myc expressions. In addition, the treatment with either of the HGFs plus HIDAC versus HIDAC alone produced a significantly greater inhibition of the clonogenic survival of the myeloid leukemia cells. These findings underscore an additional mechanism of leukemic cell death induced by HIDAC which can be modulated by the HGFs to improve the antileukemic activity of HIDAC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-131
Number of pages9
JournalLeukemia and Lymphoma
Issue numberS1
StatePublished - 1993


  • G-CSF
  • Hemopoietic growth factors
  • High dose Ara-C
  • Myeloid leukemia cells
  • PIXY 321

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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