In autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC) is a commonly used ex vivo purging agent for leukemic blasts. In the present report, we demonstrate that exposure to high concentrations of 4-HC for 1 hour, as used in ex vivo bone marrow purging, produces internucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), in human myeloid leukemia HL60 cells. Lower concentrations of 4-HC (10, 20, or 50 μM/L) failed to cause this effect, while higher concentrations (≥2200 μM/L) produced random DNA fragmentation. 4-HC-mediated internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was associated with a marked induction in c-jun and significant reductions in bcl-2 and c-myc oncogene expressions. A combined treatment with interleukin-3 (IL-3) plus IL-6 for 18 hours before an additional, 1-hour concurrent treatment with 4-HC (100 μM/L) significantly increased 4-HC-induced DNA fragmentation as well as colony growth inhibition of HL60 cells. The effects of cotreatment with IL-3 plus IL-6 were also associated with a further, modest decrease in bcl-2 and c-myc and augmentation of c-jun expression. These findings highlight an alternative mechanism of 4-HC-induced leukemic cell death that can be potentially enhanced by cotreatment with IL-3 plus IL-6.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - Dec 1 1993|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research
- Cell Biology