Early sex differences in the immune-inflammatory responses to neonatal ischemic stroke

Sonia Villapol, Valerie Faivre, Pooja Joshi, Raffaella Moretti, Valerie C. Besson, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


We recently reported that neonatal ischemia induces microglia/macrophage activation three days post-ischemia. We also found that female mice sustained smaller infarcts than males three months post-ischemia. The objective of our current study was to examine whether differential acute neuroinflammatory response and infiltrated immune cells occurs between male and females after three days post-ischemia. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male and female postnatal 9-day-old (P9) mice, and mice were sacrificed three days after ischemia. Brains were analyzed for mRNA transcription after microglia magnetic cell sorting to evaluate M1 and M2 markers. FACS analysis was performed to assess myeloid infiltration and microglial expression of CX3 chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1). Inflammatory cytokine expression and microglia/macrophage activation were analyzed via in situ hybridization combined with immunofluorescence techniques. Lesion volume and cell death were measured. An increase in microglia/macrophages occurred in male versus female mice. The cells exhibited amoeboid morphology, and TNFα and ptgs2 (Cox-2) genes were more expressed in males. More myeloid cell infiltration was found in male versus female brains. However, we did not observe sex-dependent differences in the injured volume or cell death density. Our data show that sex differences in the acute microglial and immune responses to neonatal ischemia are likely both gene-and region-specific.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3809
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019


  • Lesion
  • Macrophages
  • Microgliosis
  • Neonatal stroke
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Neuronal loss
  • Sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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