Despite the advance of immunotherapy, only a small subset of patients gains long-term survival benefit. This fact represents a compelling rationale to develop immuno-PET imaging that can predict tumor response to immunotherapy. An increasing number of studies have shown that tumor-specific major histocompatibility complex II (tsMHC-II) is associated with improved responses to targeted immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of tsMHC-II protein expression and its dynamic change on treatment with interferon γ (IFNγ) as a new target for immuno-PET to predict response to immunotherapy. Methods: Major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) antibody was radiolabeled with DOTA-chelated 64Cu to derive an MHC-II immuno-PET tracer. Two melanoma models (B16SIY, B16F10) that are respondent and nonrespondent, respectively, to PD1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor were used. Both tumor models were treated with anti-PD1 and IFNγ, enabling observation of dynamic changes in tsMHC-II. Small-animal PET imaging, biodistribution, and histologic studies were performed to validate the correlation of tsMHC-II with the tumor response to the immunotherapy. Results: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of the 2 tumors supported the consensual recognition of tsMHC-II correlated with the tumor response to the immunotherapy. The in vivo PET imaging revealed higher basal levels of tsMHC-II in the responder, B16SIY, than in the nonresponder, B16F10. When treated with anti-PD1 antibody in animals, B16SIY tumors displayed a sensitive increase in tsMHC-II compared with B16F10 tumors. In IFNγ stimulation groups, the greater magnitude of tsMHC-II was further amplified when the IFNγ signaling was activated in the B16SIY tumors, as IFNγ signaling positively upregulates tsMHC-II in the tumor immunity. Subsequent histopathologic analysis supported the correlative characteristics of tsMHC-II with tumor immunity and response to cancer immunotherapy. Conclusion: Collectively, the predictive value of tsMHC-II immuno-PET was validated for stratifying tumor immunotherapy responders versus nonresponders. Monitoring sensitivity of tsMHC-II to IFNγ stimulation may provide an effective strategy to predict the tumor response to immunotherapy.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine|
|State||Published - Nov 1 2022|
- anti-PD1 immunotherapy
- molecular imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas