Drug response in organoids generated from frozen primary tumor tissues

Alex J. Walsh, Rebecca S. Cook, Melinda E. Sanders, Carlos L. Arteaga, Melissa C. Skala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Primary tumor organoids grown in three-dimensional culture provide an excellent platform for studying tumor progression, invasion, and drug response. However, organoid generation protocols require fresh tumor tissue, which limits organoid research and clinical use. This study investigates cellular morphology, viability, and drug response of organoids derived from frozen tissues. The results demonstrate that viable organoids can be grown from flash-frozen and thawed tissue and from bulk tissues slowly frozen in DMSO supplemented media. While the freezing process affects the basal metabolic rate of the cells, the optical metabolic imaging index correlates between organoids derived from fresh and frozen tissue and can be used to detect drug response of organoids grown from frozen tissues. The slow, DMSO frozen tissue yielded organoids with more accurate drug response than the flash frozen tissues, and thus bulk tissue should be preserved for subsequent organoid generation by slow freezing in DMSO supplemented media.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number18889
JournalScientific Reports
StatePublished - Jan 7 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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