In a previous study, the spectrum of H-ras mutations detected in B6C3F1 mouse liver tumors induced by 5, 50 or 150 μmol/kg body wt of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) was similar to that in spontaneous B6C3F1 mouse liver tumors, suggesting that activation of the H-ras gene in NDEA-Induced mouse liver tumors may not be the direct result of the chemical interaction with the H-ras gene. In the present study, mutations in the H-ras oncogene from B6C3F1 mouse liver tumors induced by 5 or 50 μmol/kg body wt of NDEA were characterized by DNA amplification with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequence analysis. Twenty-one of 66 NDEA-induced B6C3F1 mouse liver tumors contained activated H-ras gene with 2 of 21 having a CG to AT transversion at the first base of codon 61, 17 of 21 having AT to GC transition and 2 of 21 having an AT to TA transversion at the second base of codon 61 in the H-ras gene. The predominant mutation, AT to GC transition (17/21, 81%) is consistent with the formation of O4-ethylthymine adduct, and is distinct from the predominant CG to AT transversion (50%) at the first base of codon 61 detected in H-ras gene from NDEA-induced B6C3F1 mouse liver tumors in a previous study by Stowers et al. Mutations in the K-ras oncogene from 59 A/J mouse lung tumors induced by 0.53 mmol/kg body wt of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were also characterized by using the above mentioned methods. Forty-six of 59 NNK-induced A/J mouse lung tumors contained activated K-ras genes. All 46 (100%) of the activated K-ras gene had GC to AT transitions at the second base of codon 12. The same mutation was observed in 70% (7/10) of the K-ras oncogene from A/J lung tumors induced by 4.8 mmol/kg body wt (given in 21 doses) of NNK. These data suggest that other factors in addition to genotoxic effect might be involved in the induction of rodent tumors by some carcinogens when given at higher doses. Therefore, further studies to compare the dose-dependent differences in the profile of ras mutations induced by chemical carcinogens may help to assess human cancer risk. Mutation(s) in exons 5-8 of the p53 gene was not found in these NDEA-induced mouse liver tumors and NNK-induced mouse lung tumors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research