Disposition of sulfadimethoxine in male llamas (Llama glama) after single intravenous and oral administrations

Kathryn Junkins, Dawn Merton Boothe, James Jensen, Tanya Herzog, Jenifer Chatfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This study determined the disposition of sulfadimethoxine in six, healthy, adult, gelded male llamas (Llama glama) by using a nonrandomized crossover design with i.v. dosing (58.8 ± 3.0 mg/kg based on metabolic scaling) followed by oral dosing (59.3 mg/kg ± 8.3). Blood samples were collected intermittently for a 72-hr period, and serum sulfadimethoxine concentrations were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum sulfadimethoxine concentrations across time were subjected to standard pharmacokinetic analysis based on linear regression. Mean maximum serum concentration after oral dosing was 23.6 ± 14.9 μg/ml, and extrapolated peak concentration after i.v. administration was 246.6 ± 15.8 μg/ml. Total clearance of sulfadimethoxine was 45.4 ± 13.9 L/kg. Half-lives after i.v. and oral administration were 541 ± 111 min and 642.4 ± 204.8 min, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 52.6 ± 15%. These data suggest that the oral dose administered to llamas in this study, based on metabolic scaling from cattle, may be inadequate when compared with the reported minimum inhibitory concentration (512 μg/ml) breakpoint for sulfadimethoxine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-15
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2003


  • Llama glama
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Sulfadimethoxine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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