Disparities in Influenza Vaccination Coverage and Associated Factors Among Adults with Cardiovascular Disease, United States, 2011-2020

Tarang Parekh, Zulqarnain Javed, Safi U. Khan, Hong Xue, Khurram Nasir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: Influenza vaccination can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the US. However, differences in state-level trends in CVD and sociodemographic and health care characteristics of adults with CVD have not yet been studied. METHODS: In this repeated cross-sectional study, we extracted 476,227 records of adults with a self-reported history of CVD from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from January 2011 through December 2020. We calculated the prevalence and likelihood of annual influenza vaccination by sociodemographic characteristics, health care characteristics, and CVD risk factors. Additionally, we examined annual trends of influenza vaccination by geographic location. RESULTS: The annual age-adjusted influenza vaccination rate among adults with CVD increased from 38.6% (2011) to 44.3% (2020), with an annual average percentage change of 1.1%. Adults who were aged 18 to 44 years, male, non-Hispanic Black/African American, or Hispanic, or had less than a high school diploma, annual household income less than $50,000, and no health insurance had a lower prevalence of vaccination. The odds of vaccination were lower among non-Hispanic Black/African American (adjusted odds ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.70-0.77) and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (adjusted odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98) compared with non-Hispanic White adults. Only 16 states achieved a vaccination rate of 50%; no state achieved the Healthy People 2020 goal of 70%. Nonmedical settings (supermarkets, drug stores) gained popularity (19.2% in 2011 to 28.5% in 2018) as a vaccination setting. CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination among adults with CVD improved marginally during the past decade but is far behind the targeted national goals. Addressing existing disparities requires attention to the role of social determinants of health in determining access to vaccination, particularly among young people, racial and ethnic minority populations, people who lack health insurance, and people with comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E67
JournalPreventing Chronic Disease
StatePublished - Oct 27 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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